Interplay of Design Thinking & Technology Integration: A Project-Based Learning Design


  • Sadia Nawaz University of Education, Lahore
  • Dr. Aisha Mahmood University of Education, Lahore



Design Thinking, Project-Based Learning, Technology Integration, 21st-century skills, STEM


Design Thinking (DT), a research-based strategy as well as Project-based learning (PBL), an inductive, student-centered pedagogical method have been emerging in the modern education systems due to their significant contribution for preparing successful and productive individuals of 21st century. DT and PBL are considered promising for developing desired Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) and required skills among the learners to ensure their effective and efficient participation in global competitive environment. Despite a higher emphasis on innovative strategies like PBL and DT by the world’s recognized education systems, these are not widely practiced in Pakistan. The main reasons for their lack of practice are limited resources and fixed mindsets of stakeholders. Keeping in view the context of Pakistani higher educational landscape, a course was designed and implemented in the STEM department of a public university of Pakistan. Through this course, the interplay of PBL, Design Thinking and technology integration was made visible by capturing students’ critical and creative thinking, communication and collaboration skills while solving authentic teaching and learning problems. Researchers incorporated constructive alignment within standard academic requirements throughout the course. On the basis of results and implications of this course, it is hoped that this research based on design and enactment of PBL will be a contribution to the higher education (HE) of Pakistan. Especially, in STEM research and practice, it helped to inculcate growth mindset for inductive pedagogical methods like PBL by giving due importance to effective technology integration to make students’ learning visible. The entire PBL process has showcased visible improvements in 4Cs (critical thinking, collaboration, communication, creativity) among students along with a success story of making positive change happen in the classroom. Policy makers, curriculum developers, teacher education institutions, and educational researchers will be nudged for a paradigm-shift from teacher-centered didactic to student-centered inductive teaching methods, on-campus to online collaborative spaces individual to collaborative learning experiences and traditional to ongoing and continuous improvement through PBL.

Keywords –  Design Thinking, Project-Based Learning (PBL), Technology integration, Gold standard PBL, SDG4, KSAs, 21st century skills, Inductive pedagogical method, STEM

Author Biographies

Sadia Nawaz, University of Education, Lahore

Sadia Nawaz

MPhil Graduate

Department of STEM Education, University of Education, Lahore

Dr. Aisha Mahmood, University of Education, Lahore

Aisha Mahmood

Assistant Professor

Department of STEM Education, University of Education, Lahore




How to Cite

Sadia Nawaz, & Aisha Mahmood. (2023). Interplay of Design Thinking & Technology Integration: A Project-Based Learning Design. Journal of Contemporary Trends and Issues in Education, 2(2), 77–94.